We report results from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) image analysis of complex semi-crystalline and amorphous materials, and apply the insights gained from local structure information towards global structure determination. Variations in HAADF STEM intensities for a rotationally disordered heterostructure and an amorphous oxide film are statistically analyzed to extract information regarding the inhomogeneity of the films perpendicular to the substrate. By assuming chemical homogeneity in the film axis parallel to the substrate, the signal intensity variation parallel to the substrate is used to estimate the signal noise level, allowing evaluation of the significance of intensity differences in the substrate normal direction. The positions of HAADF STEM intensity peaks in the perpendicular direction, averaged from multiple images, provide a valuable initial model for a Rietveld refinement of the global c-axis structure of the heterostructure. For an amorphous multi-coat solution-cast oxide sample, the analysis reveals statistically significant variations in the HAADF STEM intensity profile perpendicular to the substrate. These variations indicate an inhomogeneous density profile, presumably related to the spin-casting of individual layers and have implications for understanding the chemical interactions that occur between layers when preparing multilayer amorphous oxide films from solution.
Mitchson, G.; Ditto, J.; Woods, K. N.; Westover, R.; Page, C. J.; Johnson, D. C. Application of HAADF STEM image analysis to structure determination in rotationally disordered and amorphous multilayered films. Semiconductor Science and Technology 2016, 31 (8), 084003 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0268-1242/31/8/084003